Abstract Inflammation is linked to cancer, and many anti-cancer agents are used to treat inflammatory diseases also, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Moreover, chronic inflammation increases the risk for various cancers, indicating that eliminating inflammation may represent a valid strategy for cancer therapy and prevention. This article explores the relationship between inflammation and cancer with an emphasis on epidemiological evidence, summarizes the current usage of anti-inflammatory agents for cancer prevention and therapy, and describes the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of anti-inflammatory agents.
Since monotherapy is insufficient for treating cancer generally, the combined usage of anti-inflammatory agents and conventional cancer therapy is also a focal point in discussion. In addition, we also briefly describe future directions that should be explored for anti-cancer anti-inflammatory agents.
Inflammation and Cancer It has been recognized that infections and inflammation are related to cancer long, and strong correlations between the existence of inflammation and the development of pre-cancerous lesions at various anatomic sites have been established. Thus, the existence of inflammation appears to induce or facilitate carcinogenesis. That inflammation may result in the initiation of cancer is reasonable considering that chronic inflammation is characterized by infiltration of mononuclear immune cells including macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cellstissue destruction, fibrosis, and increased angiogenesis 9 Increased genomic damage, increased DNA synthesis, cellular proliferation, disruption of DNA repair pathways, inhibition of apoptosis, and the promotion of angiogenesis and invasion are also associated with chronic inflammation All of these processes have been implicated in the initiation and progression of cancers.
During chronic inflammation, pro-inflammatory molecules, such as cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOSreactive oxygen species ROSand NF-kB are upregulated Together, these processes provide a favorable microenvironment for the exponential growth of malignant cells. Read More