Telephonefaxe-mail moc. All rights reserved This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The physical body weight, body mass index, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, high density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, creatinine and urea levels were determined before and after the administration of the ketogenic diet.
Changes in these parameters were monitored after eight, 16 and 24 weeks of treatment. From week 1 to week HDL cholesterol levels considerably increased The level of total cholesterol decreased, whereas LDL cholesterol levels decreased after treatment. The level of triglycerides decreased following 24 weeks of treatment significantly.
The level of blood glucose decreased. The noticeable changes in the level of urea and creatinine were not statistically significant. It considerably reduced the body weight and body mass index of the patients. Furthermore, it decreased the level of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, and increased the known level of HDL cholesterol. Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer time period did not produce any significant side effects in the patients.
Therefore, the present study confirms that it is safe to use a ketogenic diet for a longer time period than previously demonstrated. Keywords: Diet, Ketosis, Obesity Obesity has become a serious chronic disease in both developed and developing countries. Furthermore, it is associated with a variety of chronic diseases 1 – 4. Each year from obesity-related diseases 56 It is estimated that in the United States alone approximatelypeople die. Different methods for reducing weight using reduced calorie and fat intake combined with exercise have failed to show sustained long-term effects 7 – 9.
Recent studies from various laboratories 1011including our own 12have proven that a high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ketogenic diet is fairly effective in reducing body weight and the risk factors for various chronic diseases. The ketogenic diet was introduced in In this diet originally, the fat to carbohydrate ratio is While there was a significant decrease in the weight of obese patients who were on a ketogenic diet 12the reverse occurred when the diet changed to one high in carbohydrates It should be noted that the concept that fat can be eaten ad libitum and still induce weight loss in obese subjects is not a recent one 13 – Incomplete oxidation of fatty acids by the liver results in the accumulation of ketone bodies in the body.
A ketogenic diet maintains the physical body in a state of ketosis, which is characterized by an elevation of D-b-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. Mild ketosis is a natural phenomenon that occurs in humans during fasting and lactation 19 Postexercise ketosis is a well-known phenomenon in mammals.
Although the majority of the changes in the physiological parameters induced following exercise revert back to their normal values rapidly, the level of circulating ketone bodies increases for a few hours after muscular activity ceases It has been found that in trained individuals, a low blood ketone level protects against the development of hypoglycemia during prolonged intermittent exercise In addition, ketosis has a significant influence on suppressing hunger.
It is generally believed that high fat diets may result in the development of obesity and several other diseases such as coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes. This view, however, is based on studies carried out in animals that were given a high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, our laboratory has recently proven that a ketogenic diet modified the risk factors for heart disease in obese patients Although various short-term studies examining the effect of a ketogenic diet in reducing the weight of obese patients have been carried out 10its long-term effects in obese subjects are not known Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet on obesity and obesity-associated risk factors in a huge population of obese patients.
The body mass index BMI of women and men was The mean age was The mean age, initial height, bMI and weight for all patients are given in Table 1. Fasting blood tests were carried out for all of the subjects. Initially, all patients were subjected to liver and renal function tests, and glucose and lipid profiles, using fasting blood samples, and a complete blood count.
Thereafter, fasting blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood sugar, urea and creatinine levels at the eighth, week 16th and 24th. In addition, height and weight measurements, and blood pressure were monitored at each visit.